Brantax - engineering survey

underwater, underground
and surface investigation

Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)

Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) uses a high-frequency (80 to 1,500 MHz) EM pulse transmitted from a radar antenna to probe the earth. The transmitted radar pulses are reflected from various interfaces within the ground, and this return is detected by the radar receiver. Reflecting interfaces may be soil horizons, the groundwater surface, soil/rock interfaces, man-made objects, or any other interface possessing a contrast in dielectric properties.

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The radar signal is imparted to the ground by an antenna that is in close proximity to the ground. The reflected signals can be detected by the transmitting antenna or by a second, separate receiving antenna. The received signals are processed and displayed on a graphic recorder. As the antenna (or antenna pair) is moved along the surface, the graphic recorder displays results in a cross-section record or radar image of the earth. As GPR has short wavelengths in most earth materials, resolution of interfaces and discrete objects is very good. However, the attenuation of the signals in earth materials is high, and depths of penetration seldom exceed 10 m. Water and clay soils increase the attenuation, decreasing penetration.

Applications of GPR method:

  • Bedrock depth
  • Identification of fractures and fissures
  • Identification of fractures in the bedrock
  • Measuring the thickness of permafrost
  • Soil / Layers unconsolidated
  • Groundwater Contamination
  • Detection of septic systems
  • Detection of buried tanks
  • Characterization of buried waste
  • Detection of buried ordnance (UXO)
  • Delimitation disposition pits / trenches
  • Buried fuel tanks
  • Study of concrete and asphalt layer
  • The size and limits of buried deposits
  • Evaluation of paved roads buried
  • Detection of cables and pipelines
  • Maps of groundwater contamination
  • Identification of buried household objects
  • Detection of voids and cavities
  • Ancient mounds
  • Cemeteries
  • Historic structures
  • Historical complex
  • Observation posts