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underwater, underground
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Minerals exploration

Geophysics exploration is an important tool in the research and evaluation of useful mineral deposits. Good planning and design of land prospecting method leads to lower operating costs and significantly reduce the time dedicated to direct investigations. Through his methods, geophysics exploration can cover large areas of land locating storage areas with high potential of useful ore - maps of the natural magnetic field variation, maps with variation of vertical or horizontal magnetic gradiencontinua sa citesti

Wind farms and photovoltaic exploration

In the design stages of wind farms or photovoltaic particular attention is given to knowledge of the geological structure of the foundation soil. Exploration geophysics, trough specific methods, completes geotechnical data and brings more information to land valuation. In projects developed to describe geological and hydrogeological conditions of an area that is going to develop a wind farm and photovoltaic we use methods like: seismic refraction, MASW, Cgeoelectrical tomography. These methodcontinua sa citesti

Mapping unexploded bombs – UXO

In areas with high possibilities of existence of unexploded bombs (old industrial sites, airports) is recommended before starting excavation operations, to execute a scan geophysics in order to put out these items. This way may be highlight areas with high potential risk and eliminate unnecessary risk. Methods generally accepted in such investigations are vertical magnetic gradient measurements, metal detection, electromagnetic measurement and geo-radar. Experience cumulated in numerous intercontinua sa citesti

Geophysical applications

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Seismic prospecting – HVSR

Seismic prospecting method HVSR (Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio) consists in recording the vibrations produced by ambient noise in three directions for a few minutes to determine the fundamental resonance frequency. To apply this method is used a single geophone especially designed for this purpose. Estimating sediment thickness deposits and bedrock geometry is an essential component in numerous geological and hydrogeological studies. Some studies do not require or do not help pay continua sa citesti

Seismic prospecting – MASW

MASW (Multi-Channel Analysis of Surface Waves) - Method allows profiling of shear wave velocity Vs, which is a direct indicator of soil resistance (stiffness) and is commonly used to obtain the bearing capacity. MASW method is particularly useful where the signal / noise ratio is unfavorable investigations using conventional seismic (reflection and refraction), in urban areas with heavy traffic. MASW seismic prospecting method allows to determine, besides velocity profile, certain geotechncontinua sa citesti

Dawnhole and crosshole

Down-hole (DH) and cross-hole (SH) seismic methods involve measuring the time required for P and S waves to travel from seismic source, located at the ground surface or in drilling, to the receptors placed in another drill. These seismic methods assume the existence of one or more wells for the investigations. These seismic investigations may well highlight stratification characteristics and the layers traversed by drilling. Once processed seismic data can be obtained: the average denscontinua sa citesti

Surface Waves Analysis (SWA)

In an infinite homogeneous isotropic medium, only P and S waves exist. However, when the medium does not extend to infinity in all directions, other types of waves can be generated. These waves are called surface waves because they are confined to the vicinity of one of the surfaces that bound the medium.   In exploration seismology, the main type of surface wave of importance is the Rayleigh wave, often called ground roll. This wave travels along the surface of the earth and involves a combicontinua sa citesti

Reflection method

Reflection method has developed very much because it is the main method for surveying the oil and gas retaining rock layers. In geophysics engineering  this method is used for studding the bedrock proprieties, detecting possible sinkholes and discontinuities in the earth’s consistency, this being very useful in big construction projects. Applications: Detection and mapping layers of clay  Bedrock depth  Depth profiling  Identification of fractures in the bedrock  The tcontinua sa citesti

Refraction method

Refraction method was the first method used in seismic prospecting. It has a major applicability in shallow investigation, being frequently used in geology and hydrogeology investigations.   The method is based on tracking and analyzing the seismic waves which are refracted on a surface that separates two different mediums with different proprieties of wave velocity. Generating the signal for the measurements does not pose particular problems for small depths, like in case of engineering procontinua sa citesti

Seismic prospecting

Seismic prospecting is by far the most important geophysical technique in terms of expenditures and number of geophysicists involved. Its predominance is due to high accuracy high resolution, and great penetration. Seismic methods are important in groundwater searches and in civil engineering, especially to measure the depth to bedrock in connection with the construction of large buildings, dams, highways, and harbor surveys. Seismic techniques have found little application in direct exploratiocontinua sa citesti

Self Potential (SP)

Self Potential (SP) surveying, one of the oldest geophysical methods, involves passively measuring natural earth voltages. The method is commonly used in hydro geological and geotechnical applications. The SP method involves measuring natural earth voltages using two electrodes at the surface. The natural earth voltages are typically caused by moving water and ions through pore spaces of soil and rock (electro kinetic potential). The potential drop (voltage) is measured between two non-polarizacontinua sa citesti


The gravimetry method is useful wherever the formations of interest have densities that are appreciably different from those of surrounding formations. It is an effective means of mapping sedimentary basins where the basement rocks have a consistently higher density than the sediments. It is also suitable for locating and mapping salt bodies because of the generally low density of salt compared with that of surrounding formations. Occasionally it can be used for groundwater studies and for direccontinua sa citesti

Magnetic Field Intensity and Vector

Magnetic prospecting maps variations in the magnetic field of the earth that are attributable to changes of structure, magnetic susceptibility, or remanence in certain near-surface rocks. Sedimentary rocks generally have a very small susceptibility compared with igneous or metamorphic rocks, which tend to have a much higher magnetite content.   In mining exploration, magnetic methods are employed for direct location of ores containing magnetic minerals such as magnetite. Intrusive bodies suchcontinua sa citesti

Measurements of the Natural Potential

Natural potential measurement involves geophysical methods of recording electromagnetic field components, gravimetric, electrical, magnetic, etc. of the earth, without the contribution of an artificial sources signal generating. The method is often applicable in geological and hydrogeological exploration on large areas, away from interference. The main method: Magnetic Field Intensity and Vector Microgravimetry Self Potential (SP) Seismic – HVSR Applications of natural potecontinua sa citesti


The Hummel array is actually a more practical variant of the Schlumberger array, easy to adapt to difficult working conditions. In practical terms is a half of the Schlumberger array, one of the power electrodes being placed at infinity perpendicular on direction of the array. The computing of the apparent resistivity is done using the same formula as for the Schlumberger array, but to be accurate the resistivity is doubled. Roa =2* V/I*PI* b^2/a Using this method we can reduce the personal ncontinua sa citesti

Dipole - Dipole

The dipole-dipole array is logistically the most convenient in the field, especially for large spacing. All the other arrays require significant lengths of wire to connect the power supply and voltmeter to their respective electrodes and these wires must be moved for every change in spacing as the array is either expanded for a sounding or moved along a line. The convention for the dipole-dipole array shown below is that current and voltage spacing is the same, “a”, and the spacing between tcontinua sa citesti


One of the first arrays used in the 1920 and still popular today is the Schlumberger array shown below with its formula for apparent resistivity. It is another variant of the pole-dipole, again with the second current electrode placed symmetrically opposite the first. The voltage difference is consequently doubled and so the apparent resistivity is the same as that for the general pole-dipole with a factor of 1/2 in the geometric factor. In a Schlumberger sounding the voltage electrodes are usuacontinua sa citesti


The Wenner array is now seen to be a simple variant of the pole-dipole in which the distant pole at infinity is brought in and all the electrodes are given the same spacing, “a”, as seen in the following configuration Roa=2*PI*a*V/I   The Wenner array is normally used for sounding and the apparent resistivities are plotted vs. “a” such as is shown in figure.continua sa citesti

Pole - Dipole

If only one of the current electrodes is placed at infinity the configuration and the apparent resistivity are as shown: Roa = 2*PI*[b(a+b)/a]*V/I This array is used frequently in resistivity surveying and the spacing are usually described, and taken, in integer multiples of the voltage electrode spacing b = na. The standard nomenclature is to call the potential electrode spacing “a” so the configuration and apparent resistivity becomes: Roa=2*PI*an(n+1)*V/I Pole-dipole sounding data icontinua sa citesti

Pole - Pole

The simplest array is one in which one of the current electrodes and one of the potential electrodes are placed so far away that they can be considered at infinity. This configuration with its formula for apparent resistivity is shown below. Roa=V/I*2PIa   This array can actually be achieved for surveys of small overall dimension when it is possible to put the distant electrodes some practical distance away. For a survey in an area of a few square meters infinity can be on the order of a huncontinua sa citesti

Used configurations

All the arrays of electrodes used to obtain the apparent resistivity are basically superposition of the fundamental equation for the potential from a current source with appropriate sign for the current. The formulas for apparent resistivity are a product of the impedance V/I (Ohms) and a geometric factor with the units of length (meters). To investigate the resistivity distribution with depth, called a sounding, the arrays are expanded about a center point and the apparent resistivities are plocontinua sa citesti


Mise-a-la-Masse method is derived from the pole-dipole method and is characterized by a long current line and a short distance between the measuring electrodes. The main characteristic is that one power electrode is put directly in contact with the solid body we are interested in. It is better if the rock body has a lower resistivity. Thus around the body a current field will be created that will be detectable on the surface. Through grid profiling, the main directions of current movement can bcontinua sa citesti

Induced Polarization (IP)

When a current is passed through earth materials not containing metallic minerals, the amount of current is related to the driving potential only by the ohmic resistance of the formations involved. When the formations contain metallic minerals, the currents give rise to an exchange of ions at the surface of contact between the minerals and the electrolytes dissolved in the fluid filling the inter-granular pore spaces. This electrochemical exchange creates a voltage which opposes the current flowcontinua sa citesti

Geoelectrical tomography

Geoelectrical tomography can be considered the lead technique in geo-electrical measurements. This method combines modern techniques of data acquisition with performing interpretation solutions.   The data acquisition is made uniform along the profile with a density established by the distance between the electrodes and the type of array used. With one length of the multielectrode cable we can obtain hundreds of resistivity measurements thus creating a 2D image of the underground resembling continua sa citesti

Geoelectrical profiling

The electric resistivity profiling method uses the same type of arrays as in the vertical electric sounding (VES), just that in this case the interest is concentrated on several levels of depth. There for, there are arrays conceived with fixed distances between the electrodes so the measuring technology becomes simple and fast, the number of operators is smaller, the costs are smaller and the results can be visible immediately.   Geoelectrical profiling is ideal when we need to survey for shcontinua sa citesti

Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES)

Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) is by far the most used method for geoelectric surveying, because it is one of the cheapest geophysical method and it gives very good results in many area of interest. The field measurements technique is adjustable for the different topographic conditions and the interpretation of the data can be done with specialized software, with a primary interpretation immediately after the measurements. The results of VES measurements can be interpreted qualitatively ascontinua sa citesti

Geoelectrical resistivity

The resistivity method is designed to yield information on formations or bodies having anomalous electric conductivity and it has been used for a long time to map boundaries between layers having different conductivities. It is employed in engineering geophysics to map bedrock, for determining the homogeneity of the terrain and possible sinkholes, in groundwater studies to determine salinity and the depth to the water table. It is convenient and customary for most resistivity techniques tcontinua sa citesti

Geoelectrical investigations

Electrical prospecting uses a large variety of techniques, each based on some different electrical property or characteristic of materials in the earth. This differentiation is manifested in electrical resistivity and its inverse, electrical conductivity and polarization under the action of external electric fields. Geoelectrical investigations are often used in prospecting for minerals, hydrogeology, geological exploration, engineering geophysics. The methods are adaptable to every situatcontinua sa citesti

Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)

Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) uses a high-frequency (80 to 1,500 MHz) EM pulse transmitted from a radar antenna to probe the earth. The transmitted radar pulses are reflected from various interfaces within the ground, and this return is detected by the radar receiver. Reflecting interfaces may be soil horizons, the groundwater surface, soil/rock interfaces, man-made objects, or any other interface possessing a contrast in dielectric properties.   The radar signal is imparted to the ground bycontinua sa citesti

Very Low Frequency (VLF)

In radio communications terminology, VLF means very low frequency, about 15 to 25 kHz. Relative to frequencies generally used in geophysical exploration, these are actually very high frequencies. The radiated field from a remote VLF transmitter, propagating over a uniform or horizontally layered earth and measured on the earth's surface, consists of a vertical electric field component and a horizontal magnetic field component each perpendicular to the direction of propagation.   The VLF mecontinua sa citesti

Metal Detection (MD)

The term "metal detector" (MD) generally refers to some type of electromagnetic induction instrument, although traditional magnetometers are often used to find buried metal. The disadvantage of magnetometers is that they can be used only for locating ferrous metals. MD instruments in geotechnical and hazardous-waste site investigations have several uses.   The main advantages of MD instruments are that both ferrous and nonferrous metals may be detected; the surface area of the target is mocontinua sa citesti

Frequency Domain (FD) and Time Domain (TD)

Electromagnetic methods fall in two categories: frequency domain and time domain. In the frequency domain method, the transmitter emits a sinusoidal varying current at a specific frequency. Because the mutual inductance between the transmitter and conductor is a complex quantity, the electromagnetic force induced in the conductor will be shifted in phase with respect to the primary field. At the receiver, the secondary field generated by the currents in the conductor will also be shifted in phacontinua sa citesti

Electromagnetic investigations

Electromagnetic methods detect anomalies in the inductive proprieties of the earth's subsurface rocks. An alternating voltage is introduced into the earth by induction from transmitting coils either on the surface or in the air, and the amplitude and phase shift of the induced potential generated in the subsurface are measured by detecting coils and recorded. Electromagnetic (EM) surveys provide an accurate and cost effective means of characterizing subsurface conditions at a site. A number ocontinua sa citesti

Geophysical Methods

Geophysical prospecting involves the use of a series of techniques and geophysical methods capable to emphasize the composition and structure of the basement. Thus geophysical methods have been developed to meet the requirements of depth and resolution required by engineering, geological and hydrogeological survey works . Geophysical methods used: 1. Seismic prospecting Refraction seismic Reflection seismic Downhole and cross hole MASW HVSR 2. Geoelectrical investigation Elecontinua sa citesti

Borehole Investigation

In borehole investigation, geophysics provides a means of evaluating a great variety of physical properties of subsurface rocks, sediments and fluids. Borehole logging offers an economical alternative to continuous sampling or coring, furnishing continuous, objective data sets in a graphical form that can be rapidly interpreted in the field. Additionally, geophysical logging provides information about the subsurface that cannot be obtained through standard drilling and sampling techniques. Whcontinua sa citesti

Lake and River Prospecting

Determining the position of flaws in the isolating membrane of lakes constitutes one of the main problems in dealing with the fluid leakage. Through geoelectrical methods viable solutions are available for this kind of problems. For leakage prospecting that may occur in dams, geophysics uses two of the most appreciated geoelectrical methods. One of these methods is a less conventional method, called “Mise-a-la-Masse” and it gives very good results when investigating the flaws in the isolaticontinua sa citesti

Archeological Surveying

In archeological sites it is very important to gather as much information as possible without having destructive consequences and be at the same time cost effective. Geophysical methods of surveying provide just that. Thanks to geophysical methods, it is possible to detect the underground presence of structures such as walls, foundations, floors, roads, kilns, hearths, tombs, graves, pit cavities, mounds and filled ditches. Archeological surveying allow the drawing of an "archaeological map" ofcontinua sa citesti

Utility and Buried Objects Detection

Buried utility and objects can pose problems when their precise underground location is unknown. With geophysical methods we can detect and map them very precisely. Most of the locating equipment is operating through the principles of electromagnetism, designed to detect electrically conductive materials. This application has been developed especially to back up engineering projects planning that will be developed in locations where the subsurface may contain different types of objects and continua sa citesti

Determining the geological and hydrological conditions

In areas with poorly constrained geology, geophysics can be used to gather valuable information. Underground flaws such as natural voids, fractures and faults or sedimentary structures can cause significant problems if they remain undetected. In infrastructure development projects, a good knowledge of geological and hydro-geological features can help for the correct planning of the project development and for reducing the costs. Geophysics has proven its applicability in projects related to tcontinua sa citesti

Research on inorganic contaminants

Geophysical techniques are successfully used and provide good and rapid reconnaissance of contaminated sites. Electromagnetic Mapping, Electrical Tomography, Vertical Electrical Sounding, Self Potential and Ground Penetrating Radar are techniques that can highlight areas of potential contamination, without exposing any personnel to the hazards of contaminated sites. Geophysical surveys can be applied to a site in order to determine the size of the contaminated area and the depth of the contaminacontinua sa citesti

Geophysical prospection

Geophysical prospecting, by using dedicated methods and equipment, develop a series of applications designed to support projects and investigations which have an immediately applicative character. Methods used in geophysical investigations: Seismic prospecting Geoelectrical investigations Electromagnetic investigations Natural Potential Engineering projects of infrastructure development (roads, bridges, railways, pipelines and underground cables, etc.) and evaluation of mineral continua sa citesti

Telecommunication and GSM pillars

Inspection and monitoring of telecommunication and GSM pillars is an area in which the use of aerial photography using drone (UAV) finds applicability due to equipment reliability.  Using photo- video cameras in the visible or infrared spectrum can be highlight the updated status of masts and equipment mounted on it. Quality inspection equipment Determination of visibility in wooded areas Preliminary analysis of the land Stage construction exhibition panoramic Images continua sa citesti

Protected Natural Areas

Using UAV drone can perform aerial photos in different spectra, for mapping, monitoring and management of protected natural areas. Flight equipment with small dimensions and quiet electric motors has a very low influence on the ambient space.  Aerial images can be collected from altitudes of hundred meters covering in these way large areas. Applications of aerial photography for protected areas: habitat mapping thematic maps multispectral images identify different types of plants continua sa citesti

Agriculture monitoring

Aerial photography using drones allow a non-destructive and non-invasive collection of data on large agricultural areas.  Using special cameras can highlight soil nutrient levels, the percentage of diseased plants, maturity, mapping areas with high humidity etc. Using data acquired at different spectra can create thematic maps useful in harvest  management planning. Also, based on aerial photographic images, can better manage land improvement actions taking into account the concentration ofcontinua sa citesti

Wind farms and photovoltaic

Utility drones equipped with video cameras in the visible and thermal infrared finds it applicability in regular inspection or occasional wind farms and photovoltaic. In this way can be made pointed or general pictures from the planning phase, construction, inspection and maintenance of an investment. Using a planned flight can be made general periodic images of locations. Applications of aerial photography for wind farms and photovoltaic: Preliminary analysis of land Construccontinua sa citesti

Industrial and residential buildings

Drones or UAVs are used frequently for inspection and monitoring of industrial and residential areas because these flying equipments, equipped with special cameras, allow obtaining spatial images of the elements of interest: buildings, cooling towers, chimneys and exhaust toxic gases etc. Applications of aerial photography for industrial and residential buildings: Updated site pictures Updating utility networks Quality equipment inspection Monitor the progress of ongoing buildincontinua sa citesti

Infrared thermal photos

Utilizing dedicated cameras, drones can achieve thermal image capture from angles and positions otherwise impossible. Images can include both buildings and equipment in industrial areas and in residential areas. A thermography can reveal performance problems occurred during the design phase, construction phase or during maintenance activities, and can help prevent unwanted accidents.    Applications for infrared thermal images: Facade thermal insulation problems Existing thermal bcontinua sa citesti

Multispectral photos

Because the use of unmanned equipment (UAV or drone) allows high flexibility and it covers relatively large areas (hundreds of hectares,) have been adapted multispectral shooting techniques used in monitoring forestry, agricultural and protected areas. This can acquire high resolution images having greatly reduced costs compared to conventional flights. Applicability: Distribution and thematic maps Determining the vegetation density Detect outbreaks of fire Estimation of post dicontinua sa citesti

Electrical Network Monitoring

Monitoring of high voltage networks using equipment unmanned (UAV drone) is a major advantage over conventional methods used. High maneuverability, ability to follow a flight plan, the small size of the unit, high resolution, low cost flight, the human operator outside the risk area, large area coverage, etc. - are important factors in choosing of such a method for investigation performed on power lines. By using infrared cameras can be performed inspections for determining the points continua sa citesti

Oblique and panoramic images

Since the use of drones (UAV) allows high flexibility and reliability in exploitation, they are used in the acquisition of images in the visible spectrum, infrared or multispectral, which play at an angle set the perspective of building or group of buildings. Opposed to vertical photos in which we represent the outline of buildings, oblique photos provide information from a lateral perspective. The details shown in oblique photos are also a way to supplement the information obtained from continua sa citesti

3D terrain model

By using aerial imagery acquisition technology with drone (UAV) is it possible to record an amount of topographic information, by aerial photography, very dense and at a high resolution. Subsequent aerial photography acquisition, using dedicated software, is generated level points that are able to reproduce faithfully land surface. The method allows easy approach to land difficult or impossible to approach by land methods. 3D models of small settlements Digital terrain model (DTM, Dcontinua sa citesti

Orthophotomap and photogrammetry

Develop an orthophotomap begins with the planning of the flight for the area of interest. For this step we need to know the scale of the orthophotomap desired to calculate the height of flight, as well as longitudinal and lateral overlapping images. In parallel with the operation of aerial images acquisition are determined ground control points for calibrating the final image. Using unmanned equipment (drone, UAV) the availability and flexibility of creating a project are net superior to continua sa citesti

Aerial photography

Aerial photography provides useful insights into the development of projects from the design stage, going to execution, inspection and maintenance and time tracking .  Using drones (UAV) to capture aerial imagery brings extra flexibility in works approach with much lower costs compared to conventional aircraft. In industrial and civilian field of investments aerial photography is used as a tool for checking and controlling, monitoring, planning and prevention. Aerial photograph proves tcontinua sa citesti

Topographic Engineering

By their nature, engineering works require a good knowledge of the land’s topographical features in order to design and plan works, as well as specialized topographical assistance during the progress of these works. Topographic Engineering application: Drawings and verticalizations Mapping of urban utilities Construction scaled drawings Dimensions monitoring and control High precision leveling Other topographical applications: GIS Applications Construction Measurementcontinua sa citesti

Topographic Site Surveys

The topographical site surveying is the technique and science used to determine the exact spatial position of points and distances and the angles between them. These points are usually on the Earth's surface and are often used to establish land maps, property boundaries or for governmental purposes. Topographic Site Surveys application: Situation and site plans Precision leveling Control measurements Surface Computing Modeling land Digital Terrain Model (DTM) Contouring Longcontinua sa citesti

Construction Measurements

Construction measurements is performed in order to draw situation plans of some existing buildings, this being necessary in planning future work or updating old plans. Construction measurements application: Drawings of the elements of a scaled construction Measurements of heights Cross and longitudinal sections Roof plans Reinforcement plans Space planning Other topographical applications: GIS Applications GPS Measurements Topographic Site Surveys Topographic Engicontinua sa citesti

GIS Applications

GIS applications enable the integration of graphics and text information in a geospatial database that becomes a powerful and effective tool in the management of multiple information involved in a large project. GIS applications enable the user to analyze and simulate various situations that implicitly depend on several factors (climatic, geological, altimetrical, hydrogeological, etc.). Procurement of GIS data by converting the existing data into a digital format Field procurement of thcontinua sa citesti

Maps and Plans Vectorization

Plans and maps conversion from digital support into classic support can be done by digitizing the characteristic features bringing thus in a vector format, with multiple possibilities of exploitation. Digitization of cadastral and topographical plans and maps Vectoring civil and industrial projects Touristic and thematic maps Obtaining of maps with isolines Vectoring the communication lines on the raster maps Putting into coordinates of raster format topographical maps and plans continua sa citesti

GPS Measurements

The GPS measurement technique enables the operator to determine the coordinates of points of interest with high precision, regardless of location, in a shorter time compared to traditional techniques. Possibility of fast and accurate determination of the X,Y coordinate Achievement and thickening of the support topographic networks Determination of the property boundaries Limitations of interest areas Monitoring of the movements in time Other topographical applications: GIcontinua sa citesti

Topographic measurements

Topography is a branch of geodesy which deals with the measurement technique of a portion of Earth's shell, with determining the position of earth elements on small surfaces (considered flat), as well as graphical or numerical representation technique of the measured surfaces, for drawing up maps and plans; detailed description of a place in terms of placement, configuration, etc.; how elements of an ensemble are arranged in space. Topographical services: GIS Applications Constructioncontinua sa citesti

Geological exploration

Geology studies the composition of both surface rocks and those of deep mineral deposits (solid, liquid and gas), the structure of the planet, tectonic plates of the Earth's shell, its fluid successive layers, which are located between the solid shell of the earth surface and its hard core, composed mainly of melted heavy elements, subject to very high pressures. The first stage of geological research of a region starts with mapping the land, paying particular emphasis to the surface rocks. Folcontinua sa citesti

Geotechnical studies

Geotechnical study represents the first stage of the construction, rehabilitation or strengthening of a civil or industrial objective. Documentation is an integral part of the technical design, required by Law. 50 of 29.07.1991 and updated. Geotechnical study includes information about physical and mechanical characteristics of the soil resulting in a series of recommendations on foundation solutions, technical advice necessary to issue future construction project. Preliminary geotechniccontinua sa citesti

Bathymetric profiles

Utilizing bathymetric measurements technique, data acquisition can be made both in a uniform network (especially for bathymetric maps) and default routes for analysis of underwater landscape on profiles. Bathymetric profiling finds its applicability mainly on flowing waters (rivers, canals) where an investigation on to a perpendicular or longitudinal section to the direction of flow of the river greatly reduces the workload and, consequently, the cost of the works. This kind of bathymcontinua sa citesti

Bathymetric maps

Bathymetry can be considered aquatic equivalent of altimetry. Representing an offshoot of the hydrometry, bathymetry deals with measuring the depth of water in seas, lakes and rivers and can achieve their underwater relief maps. To measure the depth it is used sonar that emits a sonic wave, high frequency, with which to measure water depth. Corroborating technique sonar depth measurements and exact position using GPS technology, our company can calibrate your depth map or maps of the lcontinua sa citesti

Bathymetric measurements

Bathymetry can be considered the equivalent of altimetry applications over water. It is the study of water depth with the help of which maps and profiles of the underwater relief can be created. Bathymetry method is successfully being used on lakes and rivers (before and after dredging) in order to determine the silt deposit and to estimate the useful material reserves or in order to create maps of flood risk areas, of recreational lakes or beach areas for signaling deep places with drownincontinua sa citesti


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